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Morphology (linguistics) - Wikipedia
What is Morphology? Dixon, Robert M. Cambridge University Press, Julien, Marit. Oxford University Press, Levelt, Willem J. Marantz, Yasushi Miyashita, et al. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks.
The rear portion of the roof of the mouth with no bony structure above it is called the velum der Hintergaumen, das Velum; sometimes der weiche Gaumen. In nonlinguistic contexts, it is sometimes termed the 'soft palate', but we will use only the term 'velum'. Sounds produced with its involvement are velar velar, der Hintergaumenlaut. English speakers normally make use of it only when gargling.
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The velie das Gaumensegel consists of the velum and the uvula together. In other words, it is the moveable rear portion of the roof of the mouth, which can be raised in order to close off the nasal passage as we do when swimming underwater without holding our nose.
In speaking, the velie is kept raised to close off the nasal cavity, except when producing nasal or nasalized sounds see 8, below. The nasal cavity die Nasenhohle is the passage through which air can pass by way of the nose to and from the throat. It can be and normally is sealed off during speech, except to produce a nasal nasal, der Nasenlaut or nasalized nasaliert sound. In producing a nasal sound, the air from the lungs does not exit by way of the oral cavity, but exclusively through the 10 Phonetics nasal cavity, whereas a nasalized sound is an oral sound produced with the velie not sealed and consequently with some air passing simultaneously through the nasal cavity.
The oral cavity die Mundhohle is simply the mouth. Sounds produced in the mouth are called oral sounds ora! If a sound is produced by using both the oral and the nasal passages simultaneously, it is nasalized nasaliert. The pharynx der Rachen is what we commonly call the 'back of the throat', the part that becomes enflamed when we have a 'sore throat, a throat-cold' der Rachenkatarrh. Pharyngeals pharyngal, der Rachenlaut are formed in this part of the speech tract, but neither German nor English makes use of such sounds which are common, for example, in the Semitic languages.
The tongue die Zunge is involved in the production of a great many speech sounds, called linguals lingual, der Zungenlaut , and must be divided into distinct parts in order to define these sounds accurately. The apex, or tip of the tongue die Zungenspitze , refers specifically to the pointed end of the tongue.
Sounds produced with this tip are called apical apikal, der Zungenspitzenlaut. When not pointed, the edge of the tongue along the front and sides, is called the blade of the tongue das Zungenblatt. The front of the tongue die Vorderzunge is the part of the dorsum of the tongue that stretches from behind the tip to about the mid-point of the tongue, i. Speech organs 11 The back of the tongue die Hinterzunge is that part of the dorsum behind the mid-point, stretching to the point where the tongue borders on the pharynx, i.
The root of the tongue die Zungenwurzel is the remainder of the dorsum opposite the pharyngeal cavity. It is not used in the articulation of German or English speech sounds.
The epiglottis das Kehlkopfsegel is, strictly speaking, not a speech organ. It is an appendage above the trachea that is closed when food is swallowed. Since no air can flow to or from the lungs when the epiglottis is closed, it must be open during speech.
The admonition of mothers to small children, not to speak with the mouth full, is less a concern for etiquette than for survival! The trachea die Luftrohre is commonly called the 'wind pipe'. It is the air passage from the lungs to the oral and nasal cavities. The esophagus die Speiserohre is the 'food pipe', and not a speech organ. We identify it here only to distinguish it from the trachea. Sounds produced through involvement of the larynx are laryngeal laryngal, der Kehlkopflaut.
The vocal cords die Stimmbiinder are two membranous folds within the larynx that can close off the trachea wholly as, for example, when we lift a heavy object , or partly as when we whisper , and can vibrate to produce voice die Stimme. The glottis die Stimmritze is the opening between the vocal cords. Sounds involving the glottis are called glottal glottal, der Knacklaut.
Speech sounds 13 1. If, however, the airflow is continuous, but through a constricted passage, as for Eng. In German and English, implosives are not part of the normal speech pattern, although they can be used to express emotions, such as 'great surprise and shock' through an imploded glottal stop, sometimes represented in writing as ugh! We will not deal with these extralinguistic signals.
German and English use such sounds only as extralinguistic signals, as for example, in English when we give lateral clicks as a signal for a horse to start moving elk, elk! We will not deal with these sounds, either. If it is preceded or followed by a vowel, like the n in Eng. If, however, no vowel is pronounced before or after the resonant, then the resonant becomes syllabic, as in colloquial Eng. For this reason, in older works the terms 'semiconsonant' der Halbkonsonant en or 'semivowel' der Halbvokal are sometimes used to refer to this group of sounds.
Among the resonants, we distinguish: NASALS der Nasenlaut , which are produced by redirecting the flow of air from the oral cavity into the nasal cavity by lowering the velic and closing the oral cavity at some point, cf. These are again extralinguistic signals in these two languages. The different vowels are produced by varying the configuration of the speech tract in order to form varying resonance chambers. We will now proceed to describe how the individual members of each class of sounds are produced, described, and represented according to the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association IPA.
This alphabet was devised to provide a uniform representation of speech sounds for use with all languages, and such phonetic representations are enclosed between square brackets, whereas the normal spelling is indicated by the use of italics, e. For the most part, we will not concern ourselves with sounds that do not occur in German or English, although from time to time we will need to glance at some particular 'exotic' sound that should be familiar to any educated person, since it can occur in words taken from other languages.
You should learn the IPA symbol used to represent each sound, and also the complete phonetic description for it, 16 Phonetics e. Blank spaces in the chart indicate nothing more than that we will not be concerned with any phone that might occur in that position. Symbols in parentheses represent phones that do not occur in standard German or English, but are of interest to us for reasons that will be noted when we discuss them.
If we pronounce an English p in isolation without the vowel of its name , it is not nearly as audible as a b in isolation. If we put a forefinger in each ear and pronounce first a p, and then a b, we hear the humming very distinctly in connection with the b. We can also detect the vibration of the vocal cords by holding the Adam's apple between the thumb and forefinger while pronouncing p no vibration and then b. While it seems very natural to us to make a distinction between voiceless p and voiced b, there are many languages which do not have voiced obstruents among them, various varieties of German spoken in Middle and Southern Germany, in Austria, and in Switzerland , and we will have to address this matter below.
In both English and North German standard pronunciation, voiceless sounds are pronounced with noticeably more energy and muscular tension than the corresponding voiced sounds. This situation is not universal, however, since there are languages e. We will not be concerned with such pronunciations in this course, but students should be prepared for them in the speech of Germans from Central and South Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.
Voiceless b, d, g can be pronounced by closing the glottis therefore preventing voicing before closing the oral cavity with the lips, the apex of the tongue, or the dorsum of the tongue. With the velie closed, the stream of air can be momentarily stopped completely at various points in the speech tract.
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In order to close the velie voluntarily, pretend you are swimming underwater without holding your nose! All obstruents in English and German are pronounced with the velie closed, so we will not indicate this fact in each individual case. We will begin with the extreme outer position, the lips, and proceed inward in discussing the points of articulation. Bilabial stops: voiceless voiced [p] [b 18 Phonetics By pressing both lips together, increasing the pressure of the airstream from the lungs, tensing the muscles of the vocal tract, and then releasing the lips, we produce the voiceless bilabial stop found in Eng!.
By decreasing the pressure of the airstream, relaxing the muscles of the vocal tract, and closing the vocal cords enough to produce vibration humming , while pressing the lips together and then releasing them, we obtain the voiced bilabial stop found in Eng!. Alveolar stops: voiceless voiced [t] [d] By placing the tip of the tongue on the alveolar ridge and the rest of the blade of the tongue along the gums above the upper teeth to close off the flow of air, increasing the pressure of the airstream, tensing the muscles of the vocal tract, then releasing the tongue, we produce the voiceless alveolar stop in Engl.
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Tanne [fana] 'fir', hat [haf] 'has'. With decreased air pressure, relaxed vocal-tract muscles, and vibrating vocal cords, while stopping the airflow with the tongue along the alveolar ridge and upper gumline, then releasing the tongue, we produce the voiced alveolar stop in Engl. Palatal stops: voiceless voiced [c] ltl Speech sounds 19 Native speakers of English and German are normally not aware that they pronounce the two k's of King Kong or of konnen - konnte in different places in the oral cavity, yet such is actually the case, as may be easily determined by pronouncing these two words in succession and noting the position of the tongue in each case.
For Eng!. In the same fashion, but with decreased air pressure, lax muscles, and vibrating vocal cords, the voiced palatal stop is produced in Eng!. Velar stops: voiceless voiced [k] [g] In producing the voiceless velar stop, the back of the tongue is raised against the velum to stop the airflow, the air pressure is increased, and the muscles tensed, followed by releasing the tongue.
This is the stop at the beginning of Eng!. Kong [khoI ], cool [khuwl], coal [khowl], call [khol]; and of Ger. All else remaining the same, but with decreased air pressure, lax muscles, and vibrating vocal cords, the voiced velar stop is produced, as in Engl. Glottal stop: voiceless  By closing the vocal cords, the flow of air is blocked at the glottis, then released, producing a voiceless glottal stop.
There is no voiced counterpart, since it is not possible to vibrate the vocal cords when they are closed. In English, the glottal stop is normally used only in attempts to be particularly distinct, as for example for the benefit of a foreigner or for someone who is hearing-impaired, as in a distinct pronunciation of an I old I apple with interruption between each word [? North German standard pronunciation calls for the use of a glottal stop before initial vowels Le. This abrupt onset of vowels accounts to a large extent for the crispness and clarity of North German formal speech, as in ein alter Apfel, in which the first, second and fourth syllables are preceded by a glottal stop [?
While every native speaker of English can produce the glottal stop when necessary in a social situation, we are not accustomed to producing it voluntarily. This can be easily learned, however. We automatically close the glottis when trying to lift a heavy object. The speaker need only pretend to lift something heavy between each syllable.